Welcome to our comprehensive guide on the specific gravity of coarse aggregate in construction. Specific gravity is an essential property that helps engineers and construction professionals assess the quality and suitability of coarse aggregates for various construction applications. In this article, we will explore the concept of specific gravity, understand its significance, learn about the test procedure, and discover how to calculate specific gravity for coarse aggregate.

Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate

Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate

Specific gravity is an important property of aggregates used in construction. It helps in determining the density and relative density of the coarse aggregate particles. Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of material to the weight of an equal volume of water at a specified temperature.

Why is the Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate Important?

The specific gravity of coarse aggregate provides useful information about its quality and suitability for various construction applications. It helps determine the amount of voids in the aggregate, which in turn affects the mix design and the overall strength and durability of the concrete. Additionally, specific gravity is used to classify aggregates into different types based on their density.

Test Procedure for Determining Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate

The specific gravity of coarse aggregate can be determined using the following procedure:

  1. Thoroughly clean and dry the specific gravity flask or pycnometer.
  2. Weigh the empty flask and record its weight as W1.
  3. Fill the flask with a known mass of dry coarse aggregate and weigh it along with the aggregate. Record the weight as W2.
  4. Add water to the flask until it is completely filled and ensure there are no air bubbles. Weigh the flask with the aggregate and water and record the weight as W3.
  5. Empty the flask and fill it with water only. Weigh the flask filled with water and record the weight as W4.

Significance of Specific Gravity Values for Coarse Aggregate

The specific gravity values obtained for coarse aggregate typically range between 2.5 and 3.0. These values can vary based on the composition and properties of the aggregate. Higher specific gravity indicates denser and stronger aggregate particles. Specific gravity values outside the acceptable range may indicate the presence of impurities or weak particles in the aggregate.


The specific gravity of coarse aggregate plays a crucial role in a concrete mix design and in assessing the quality of the aggregate. By determining the specific gravity, engineers and construction professionals can ensure that the coarse aggregate meets the required standards and possesses the desired properties for a given construction project.



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