Surveying is the scientific technique to determine the position of points and angles & distances between them. The process of surveying is used to fulfill various purposes. It is necessary for making map, planning a project etc. To accomplish all civil engineering works or projects successfully, surveying is used.

Uses of Surveying

 Some of the numerous functions of surveying are given below.

  • Topographical maps showing hills, rivers, towns, villages, forests etc. are prepared by surveying.
  • For planning and estimating new engineering projects like water supply and irrigation schemes, mines, railroads, bridges, transmission lines, buildings etc. surveying is required.
  • Cadastral Map showing the boundaries a field houses and other properties are prepared by surveying.
  • Engineering map showing the position of engineering works like roads, railways, buildings, dams, canals etc. are prepared through surveying.
  • To set out a work and transfer details from map to ground knowledge of surveying is used. 
  • For planning navigation routes and harbors, marine and hydro-graphic surveying are used.
  • To help military strategic planning, military maps are prepared by surveying.
  • For exploring mineral wealth, mine survey is necessary
  • To determining different strata in the earth crust, geological surveys are required
  • Archaeological surveys are used to unearth relics of antiquity.
Fig: Topographical map of United States.


Fig: Contour
Fig: Cadastral map of Hanover, Germany.

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